Canada’s federal animal cruelty provisions are outdated, and authorities often avoid laying criminal charges against animal abusers because they are riddled with loopholes. This allows animal abusers to escape criminal conviction for extreme acts of cruelty against animals, like skinning a cat alive or starving a dog to death. Our members, Humane Societies and SPCAs across Canada, investigate an estimated 103,000 animal cruelty complaints each year. Very few animal cruelty cases are prosecuted each year in comparison to the number of cases that are investigated. It is further estimated that less than 10% of cases that warrant prosecution are successfully prosecuted. Even if prosecution is successful, convictions and sentencing have not been consistent nor have they necessarily reflected the gravity of the offence. Canada has some of the oldest animal cruelty laws in the developed world, first enacted in 1892 and virtually unchanged since then, with outdated language and offences that make prosecution difficult.